Neurology is a branch of medical science that is concerned with disorders and diseases of the nervous system. The term neurology comes from a combination of two words - "neuron" meaning nerve and "logia" meaning "the study of".
There are around a hundred billion neurons in the brain, capable of generating their own impulses and of receiving and transmitting impulses from neighbouring cells. Neurology involves the study of:
The central nervous system, the peripheral nervous system and the autonomic nervous system.
Structural and functional disorders of the nervous system ranging from birth defects through to degenerative diseases such as Parkinson's disease and Alzheimer's disease.
Neurology also involves understanding and interpreting imaging and electrical studies. Examples of the imaging studies used include computed tomography (CT) scans and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scans. An electroencephalogram (EEG) can be used to assess the electrical activity of the brain in the diagnosis of conditions such as epilepsy. Neurologists also diagnose infections of the nervous system by analysing the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), a clear fluid that surrounds the brain and spinal cord.
Some examples of the diseases and disorders neurologists may treat include stroke, Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, multiple sclerosis, amyotropic lateral sclerosis, migraine, epilepsy, sleep disorders, pain, tremors, brain and spinal cord injury, peripheral nerve disease and brain tumors.
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